Education on line > Articles in English > Educational Labs Pave the Way for Education-Based Marketing

PŘIPRAVUJEME PRO VÁS ČESKOU VERZI NÁSLEDUJÍCÍHO ČLÁNKU

Abstract

Customer education has been a common marketing practice for quite a long time. Originally, companies focused exclusively on products and their features in their communication activities towards customers. Nowadays, the true value of a product user base lies predominantly in the depth of its engagement. As such, companies and brands place community engagement at the heart of their marketing strategies. Moreover, the era of banner blindness and ad fatigue, resulting in declining ad performance, represents new challenges for marketing experts. In their attempt to seek innovative and effective communication channels, companies started to recognize the high potential of customer education as a tool for boosting customer loyalty and accelerating the overall positive impact in terms of their business results. The objective of this paper is twofold. First, based on Apple’s innovative education programme, called “Today at Apple”, to examine, analyse and critically evaluate the innovative methods, formats, content and potential of customer education used in current marketing practice. Second, this paper aims to start an academic discussion focusing on establishing education-based marketing among fully recognized, proven and accepted marketing strategies.

 

Key words:

Creative educational labs. Customer education. Digital communication channels. Education-based marketing. Marketing paradigm. Social media platforms.

 

Introduction

 

Throughout history, many learning theories related to different educational environments have been developed. However, researchers focusing on marketing could have hardly imagined the dynamic extension and penetration of education-based methods into the marketing practice that we can see today. There is a long way from Vygotsky’s mediated learning[1], through Bandura’s social learning theory[2] to Kolb and his experiential learning conceptualized as experience as the source of learning and development[3]. However, in today’s business-related activities, customer education is playing an increasingly important role, notably in marketing communication with a focus on branding and customer relationship management.

 

In his article “Don’t Market to Your Customers; Educate Them Instead” for Forbes, William Craig deals with customer education in the real world.  He argues that: “Customer education is a built-in problem that needs to be addressed before, during, and after a challenging product is brought to market”.[4] Customer education means providing customers with the skills and capabilities to use information. Thus, companies are empowering customers. They believe that, “the more informed and empowered customers are, the more satisfied and confident they are with their choices.”[5]

 

Customer education has been the focus of certain industries for more than two decades, e.g. software producers would hardly sell their products without the hard work of their software-training professionals. However, there is a remarkable shift of education-based activities from

 

those originally focused on the post-purchase stage of the customer journey to those pertaining to the pre-purchase stage. Simultaneously, companies’ range of education-based activities is much wider. These are now dealing with much more than merely the companies’ products and their features, or ‘how-to’ related content.

 

Since customers are increasingly moving online, Aihui Chen et al., in their empirical research, took into consideration an extension of social learning perspective. They examined the customers’ purchase decision-making process in social commerce, unveiled current trends in customers’ learning behaviour and contributed to the understanding of customers’ decision-making patterns in the context of social commerce.[6]

 

The objective of this paper is twofold. First, based on Apple’s innovative in-store education programme called “Today at Apple”, to examine, analyse and critically evaluate the innovative methods, formats, content and potentials of customer education used in current marketing practice. Second, this paper aims to start an academic discussion focusing on establishing education-based marketing among the fully recognized, proven and accepted marketing strategies.

 

1 A glimpse of traditional and current learning theories

 

In view of the needs of education-based marketing content designers and with the aim of getting better insight into learning theories for marketing practice, the author of this paper briefly highlights three of them: (1) Vygotsky’s social development theory, (2) social learning theory by Albert Bandura, and (3) experiential learning.

 

Social development theory: in several studies, Lev Vygotsky, a Russian psychologist of Jewish origin born in Belarus in 1896, became world famous for his research into cognitive development. He argued that social interaction precedes cognitive development. Although the concept of the zone of proximate development[7] was criticized by many researchers[8], certain didactic principles were derived based upon it. Moreover, Vygotsky formulated the educational postulate in his well-known words, “the only good kind of instruction is that which marches ahead of development and leads it.”[9]

 

Social learning theory devised by Albert Bandura postulates that people learn from one another through observation, imitation, and modelling. The theory is often called, “a bridge between behaviourist and cognitive learning theories because it encompasses attention, memory, and motivation.” [10]

 

Experiential learning theory was devised by David Kolb, the American psychologist and educational theorist. He views the experiential learning model as a framework for, “examining and strengthening the critical linkages among education, work and personal development.” [11] (see Chart 1 below)

Chart 1: Experiential Learning as the Process that Links Education, Work and Personal Development

Source: KOLB, D. A.: Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development. Upper Saddle River : Pearson Education, 2015, p. 4.

 

 

Experiential learning theory is based on the work of highly reputable scholars and integrates the research findings of J. Dewey, J. Piaget and C. Jung among others. Underpinning the model are six key axioms: (1) learning is best conceived as a process (in higher education, the primary focus should be on engaging students); (2) all learning is re-learning (integration of new, more refined ideas); (3) learning requires the resolution of conflicts between dialectically opposed modes of adaptation to the world (conflict, differences, and disagreement are the driving forces of the learning process); (4) learning is a holistic process of adaptation (it is not only the result of cognition but involves thinking, feeling, perceiving, behaving as well as problem solving, decision making, and creativity); (5) learning results from synergetic transactions between the person and the environment (people create themselves based on their choices of actual occasions they live through); and finally (6) learning is the process of creating knowledge (social knowledge is created and recreated in the personal knowledge of the learner).[12]

 

The knowledge and proper understanding of learning theories is the domain of educators who, as a rule, are not members of marketing teams. They are the ones who understand learning objectives and know how to select appropriate instructional design methods. Should we want to design impressive and effective high quality learning materials to be used in customer education, the author of this paper is convinced that the time is right to consider hiring education micro-teams, comprising education specialists, to carry out their expert roles within organizations’ marketing teams.

 

 

2 Methodology

 

In harmony with the research objectives, the author has opted for mixed methods research design. It includes the following research methods:  descriptive analysis, exploratory analysis, case study, empirical observation, and secondary data analysis and data interpretation. The research results are promising and marketing researchers are encouraged to help validate them by further data collection in related disciplines and areas, as suggested by the author in this paper’s Conclusion.

 

3 Creative educational labs “Today at Apple” – case study

 

“Today at Apple” is the name of creative educational labs that are bringing new experiences to every Apple Store worldwide.

Picture 1: Apple Store in The Dubai Mall in Dubai – Creative labs area
Source: Today at Apple expands to 50 new sessions. [online]. [2019-10-10]. Available at: <https://t3me.com/en/news/software-and-apps/today-with-apple-expands-to-50-new-sessions/>.

 

Creative Educational Labs “Today at Apple

 

The creative education programme “Today at Apple” was launched in May 2017. It started with dozens of new educational sessions with topics ranging from photography and video to music, coding, art and design. Creative educational labs are hands-on sessions led by highly trained local Apple store team members. In some cases, renowned artists, photographers or musicians fulfil the role of instructors. The difficulty levels range from basics and how-to lessons up to professional-level programmes.[13] The sessions are from 60 to 90 minutes long and they mostly take place directly inside the Apple stores, equipped with iconic white oak long tables, measuring 18-feet long and 4-feet wide. These were originally intended to allow employees to socialize and collaborate freely, in line with the legendary concept devised by Apple’s founder, Steve Jobs. There are days when multiple creative educational labs are scheduled. With some of them, prior registration is required via a web app associated with the particular Apple store. Apple stores always provide the necessary devices. All educational sessions are free of charge.

 

The author of this paper had a unique chance to interview the Creative Director of the Apple

Stores situated in Dubai, UAE, in January 2019, when Apple completed the second year of Today at Apple. The interview took place in the Forum, the heart of the store, which serves as a meeting place for the local community and home for Today at Apple.

 

 

 Picture 2: Apple Store in The Dubai Mall in Dubai
Source: The Dubai Mall Apple Store.. [online]. [2019-10-10]. Available at: <https://www.google.com/maps/uv?hl=cs&pb=!1s0x3e5f68282a05dcaf%3A0x20bf107cc5ec789f!2m22!2m2!1i80!2i80!3m1!2i20!16m16!1b1!2m2!1m1!1e1!2m2!1m1!1e3!2m2!1m1!1e5!2m2!1m1!1e4!2m2!1m1!1e6!3m1!7e115!4shttps%3A%2F%2Flh5.googleusercontent.com%2Fp%2FAF1QipMp83FZZSRJ7KfzwWveFd7rTsOvx2L9geFV36xa%3Dw284-h160-k-no!5sThe%20dubai%20mall%20apple%20store%20-%20Hledat%20Googlem!15sCAQ&imagekey=!1e10!2sAF1QipN9W9DxUDUITgFgoX9n6esgRkQm5YO023aJc3PY&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwi9sNf-r4jlAhUGJ1AKHZTTAMIQoiowGnoECA4QBg>.

 

In January 2019, Apple announced over 50 new creative sessions. In the company’s press release, they published the first statistics relating to these sessions. According to the press release “Since the launch of Today at Apple in 2017, Apple has held over 18,000 free sessions a week attended by millions of participants around the world. This newest release expands on the most popular types of Today at Apple sessions, Walks and Labs, providing visitors even more opportunities to get more of their products, find inspiration in their community and discover guidance from world-class creators.”[14]

 

The numbers are convincing and telling. They confirm that the research assumptions are appreciable and substantial. Millions of participants around the world were subjects to learning-by-doing/experiential learning and/or social learning. Their bond to the Apple brand is strong. They will remember the experience for a long time. They have learned something new. They have met and made new friends. They share their experience through social media. It is highly probable that they will come back again.

 

In order to be more specific, there is Table 1 exemplifying a one-day programme of “Today at Apple” in The Dubai Mall, UAE.

 

Table 1: Creative educational labs Today at Apple – The Dubai Mall – Dubai/UAE – Tuesday, Oct 8, 2019

Date Creative educational lab Description
Tue, Oct 8, 2019

04:00 p.m. – 05:30 p.m.

 

Photo Walk: Taking Portraits on Location From taking a self-portrait to photographing groups, we’ll show you how to capture people and their place with iPhone. You’ll practice with interesting backdrops, work with Portrait mode and Portrait Lighting, and find flattering angles for your subject. Get hands-on with the latest iPhone in this session or bring your own. Recommended for all skill levels.
Tue, Oct 8, 2019

07:00 p.m. – 08:30 p.m.

 

Design Lab: Making a Home on Mars with Raffi Tchakerian Discover how to design in space with expert Raffi Tchakerian, as part of our Design Impact series. You’ll learn the design skills that can help humans cope with the harsh environments of outer space and other planets. You’ll get hands-on with iPad and Apple Pencil to sketch a shelter for the surface of Mars, and discover how to transform a hostile planet into a survivable habitat.
Tue, Oct 8, 2019

10:30 a.m. – 12:00 p.m.

 

Photo Lab: Disrupting the Portrait Co-created with Christopher Anderson Using the creative approach of photographer Christopher Anderson, learn how to rethink the subject, obstruct the lens, and stylize your shot to create unexpected portraits. Bring a friend or pair up with others, and our Creative Pros will take you through immersive exercises and photo prompts. Try the latest iPhone or bring your own. To get ready, join Photo Walk: Taking Portraits on Location.
Tue, Oct 8, 2019

04:30 p.m. – 06:00 p.m.

 

Music Lab: Remix Taylor Swift Exclusively in Apple Stores, get hands-on with tracks direct from your favourite Apple Music artists. In this session, you’ll deconstruct Taylor Swift’s song “You Need To Calm Down”, find out what inspired her, and create your own version of the song using GarageBand on iPhone. Devices will be provided.
Tue, Oct 8, 2019

04:30 p.m. – 06:00 p.m.

 

[AR]T Lab: AR Experiences Co-created with Sarah Rothberg What happens when a lemon and a traffic cone collide? Using artist Sarah Rothberg’s creative approach and art, you’ll learn to code an augmented reality experience. Whether it’s happy, wacky, or weird, you’ll combine AR elements in Swift Playgrounds on iPad. Our Apple Creatives will take you through creative and coding exercises. Recommended for beginners ages 12 and up. Devices will be provided.
Tue, Oct 8, 2019

06:30 p.m. – 08:00 p.m.

 

Video Lab: Small Screen Magic Co⁠-⁠created with Zach King Create imaginative videos with the illusion of teleporting, disappearing, and other visual tricks. Using recording and editing techniques inspired by video-maker Zach King, our Apple Creatives will show you how to create a “jump cut” scene that brings magic and storytelling to your video using the Clips app. Get hands-on with the latest iPhone in this session or bring your own.
Tue, Oct 8, 2019

02:30 p.m. – 03:30 p.m.

 

Art Lab for Kids: Make Your Own Emoji Kids will learn fun ways to create their own emoji. We’ll show them how to draw colourful faces and objects. They’ll get hands-on using the Adobe Fresco app on iPad with Apple Pencil to draw an emoji to take home. Devices will be provided.

Source: own processing based on Today at Apple – Calendar – Dubai Mall – Apple. [online]. [2019-10-06]. Available at: <https://www.apple.com/ae/today/dubaimall>.

4 Customer education as a marketing function

 

The above-mentioned case study Today at Appleis one of many successful examples of using customer education within marketing activities to develop customers. Many participants in the creative labs, described above, do not yet own Apple’s devices. They are merely prospective customers. However, they have been engaged in attractive marketing activities at the core of which is education. This education is based on providing numerous opportunities for experiential learning. Thus, education is becoming a marketing function. It generates demand, drives product sales, increases conversions and boosts customer loyalty. The more sophisticated the products are, the more customer education is needed. As a result, due to customer education, an ever-growing segment of knowledgeable and skilled prospects and customers comes into existence. Sometimes, these people know how to use a particular product long before they own one.

 

  1. W. Bates, a university professor, researcher and consultant, in his extensive monograph titled Teaching in a Digital Age, examines the strengths and weaknesses of experiential learning models, which lie at the core of Apples’ creative educational labs. He claims: “There is evidence that experiential learning, when properly designed, is highly engaging for students and leads to better long-term memory. Proponents also claim that it leads to deeper understanding and develops skills for a digital age, such as problem-solving, critical thinking, improved communications skills and knowledge management. In particular, it enables learners to manage better highly complex situations that cross-disciplinary boundaries, and subject domains where the boundaries of knowledge are difficult to manage.”[15]

 

Experiential learning can also take the form of digital learning environments. Bates offers the following explanation: “Indeed, there are circumstances where it is impractical, too dangerous, or too expensive to use real world experiential learning. Online learning can be used to simulate real conditions and to reduce the time to master a skill. Flight simulators have long been used to train commercial pilots, enabling trainee pilots to spend less time mastering fundamentals on real aircraft.” [16] Thus, in some cases, blended learning combining offline and online sessions seems to be the most appropriate option.

 

Disregarding the marketing objectives of education-based activities (conversion rate, brand building, customer loyalty or/and customer attachment), educational professionals can create an unforgettable, unique user experience (UX) and offer added value for customers.

 

Simultaneously, it is worth realizing that every nation’s most important assets consist of
a highly educated, skilful and technology-savvy workforce, typically comprising life-long learners. If learning is engaging, interesting and fun, learners are ready to adopt that learning easily and develop their expertise further in harmony with the changing needs and requirements. Moreover, they will be encouraged to continue to do so – thus becoming life-long learners.

 

In branding, trustworthiness is a fundamental brand value. Educational professionals as members of marketing teams can offer insights and ideas on customer education. For example, they can co-create education-based marketing strategies. Such education builds trust and prepares learners to solve real-life challenges and amplify customer success stories.[17]

 

5 Educational labs pave the way for education-based marketing

 

There are numerous examples of recent marketing practice – both globally and in the Czech Republic – documenting the use of education-based techniques and methods while pursuing marketing objectives. Here are a few – of many – examples: (1) Apple’s creative educational labs; (2) ACREA and its free educational seminars and webinars on statistics, data mining and text mining; (3) Černý most, a huge shopping mall in Prague, and its community engagement

thanks to free lectures on interesting tourist destinations, or engaging creative labs held on premises in the mall; (4) an educational exhibition in the Nový Smíchov shopping mall.

Called Giants of the Oceans, the exhibition was held under the auspices, and in close collaboration with, National Geographic. This is another example of successful cross-promotion and customer education through the idea of ‘learn and play’. Among the memorable floor-standing displays were real shark teeth and 3-D models of whales and giant octopuses. These inspired many children and their parents, and (5) the hugely successful educational interactive exhibition intended for children between four and eleven years old. Called My body, the exhibition was held in Metropole Zličín, a shopping mall in Prague 5. It aimed to inspire small children to become doctors. Simultaneously, it contributed to highly valued social marketing activities designed to change people’s behaviour for the benefit of society as a whole.

 

All of the above-mentioned education-based marketing activities influence customer relations with a particular company/brand in a positive way. In doing so, they offer unforgettable cross-generational engaging customer experience. Essentially, there are education-based activities designed and implemented in harmony with organizations’ marketing and business objectives.

Unlike interruptive advertising, education-based marketing strategies are more likely to be welcomed rather than rejected by customers. Thus, they have the potential to contribute to companies’ bottom line since they build long-term relationships with customers. By adopting education-based marketing strategies, marketing innovators pave the way for the establishment of education-based marketing as a new marketing paradigm. This has the potential to help companies reach their business goals and close the gap in marketing theory. At this developmental stage, it is the objective and ambition of the author of this treatise to initiate an academic discussion aimed at establishing education-based marketing as a new paradigm among the fully recognized, proven and accepted marketing strategies.

 

Conclusion

 

Creative educational labs and other innovative formats of customer education pave the way for the establishment of education-based marketing as a new paradigm in marketing theory and practice. The case study, Today at Apple”, is an excellent example of good business practice worth disseminating. Far-sighted business leaders cannot afford to wait until people are ready to buy their products. Instead, they need to adopt a more pro-active attitude and offer numerous opportunities for customer engagement based on educational content at every possible touchpoint. Thus, they can shorten the customer journey in a dramatic way and turn brand loyalty into brand attachment. Micro-teams consisting of professional educational experts will be an inherent part of marketing departments and they will contribute with their expertise to the professional design of education-based marketing strategies.

 

The objective of this paper was twofold. First, based on Apple’s innovative in-store education programme, called “Today at Apple”, to examine, analyse and critically evaluate the innovative methods, formats, content and potential of customer education used in current marketing practice. Second, to start an academic discussion focusing on establishing education-based marketing among fully recognized, proven and accepted marketing strategies. The paper’s author takes the liberty of declaring that she has reached the objectives of the paper thanks to the descriptive and empirical analyses and critical interpretation of secondary data. However, the author is convinced that further research into education-based marketing, notably into its efficiency and levels of adoption, is needed in order to get a more comprehensive picture of the real-life potential of education-based marketing in corporate, and especially in small-and-medium size enterprises’, practice. In addition, new methods of instruction, i.e. notably video marketing and mobile marketing, should be examined in detail, since they represent dynamic marketing communication channels that are highly suitable for broadcasting education-based marketing content.


Acknowledgement
:

 

The author would like to express her thanks and gratitude to Apple stores in Dubai, UAE, for providing insight into the creative educational labs “Today at Apple”.

 

References:

 

Apple announces new Today at Apple sessions. [online]. [2019-10-06]. Available at:  https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2019/01/apple-announces-new-today-at-apple-sessions/.

BATES, A. W.: Teaching in a Digital Age – The Open Textbook Project provides flexible and affordable access to higher education resources. Vancouver : Tony Bates Associates, 2015. [online]. [2019-10-07]. Available at:

<http://pages.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/kellner/papers/SAGEcs.htm>.

CHEN, A., LU, Y., WANG, B.: Customers’ purchase decision-making process in social commerce: A social learning perspective. In . International Journal of Information Management, 2017, Vol. 37, No. 6, p. 627-638.  ISSN 0268-4012.

CRAIG, W.: Don’t Market To Your Customers; Educate Them Instead. [online]. [2019-10-06]. Available at: :< https://www.forbes.com/sites/williamcraig/2015/04/10/dont-market-to-your-customers-educate-them-instead/>.<https://www.forbes.com/sites/williamcraig/2015/04/10/dont-market-to-your-customers-educate-them-instead/>

CUSHARD, B.: Customer Education is the New Marketing Strategy. Released on 17th October 2017. [online]. [2019-10-07]. Available at: <https://blog.servicerocket.com/learndot/customer-education-is-the-new-marketing-strategy>.

KOLB, A. Y., Kolb, A. D.: Experiential Learning Theory: A Dynamic, Holistic Approach to Management Learning, Education and Development. In Amstrong, S. J., Fukami, C.V. (eds.): The SAGE Handbook of Management Learning, Education and Development, London : SAGE Publications Ltd, 2011, p 44-68. [online]. [2019-09-10]. Available at: <https://sk.sagepub.com/reference/hdbk_mgmtlearning/n3.xml>.

KOLB, D. A.: Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development. Upper Saddle River : Pearson Education, 2015.

KOZULIN, A.: Psychological Tools and Mediated Learning. In Kozulin, A., Gindis, B., Ageyev, V. S., Miller, S. M.  (eds.): Vygotsky’s educational theory in cultural context, Cambridge  : Cambridge University Press, 2003.

LLOYD, P., FERNYHOUGH, C.: Lev Vygotsky: critical assessments. London,  New York : Routledge. 1999.

MOLL, L. C.: Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development: Rethinking its instructional implications. In Infancia y Aprendizaje, 1990, Vol. 13, No. 51-52, p. 157–168. ISSN 0210-3702.

Social Learning Theory Bandura Social Learning Theory. [online]. [2019-09-06]. Available at: <https://www.learning-theories.com/social-learning-theory-bandura.html>.

The Dubai Mall Apple Store.. [online]. [2019-10-10]. Available at: <https://www.google.com/maps/uv?hl=cs&pb=!1s0x3e5f68282a05dcaf%3A0x20bf107cc5ec789f!2m22!2m2!1i80!2i80!3m1!2i20!16m16!1b1!2m2!1m1!1e1!2m2!1m1!1e3!2m2!1m1!1e5!2m2!1m1!1e4!2m2!1m1!1e6!3m1!7e115!4shttps%3A%2F%2Flh5.googleusercontent.com%2Fp%2FAF1QipMp83FZZSRJ7KfzwWveFd7rTsOvx2L9geFV36xa%3Dw284-h160-k-no!5sThe%20dubai%20mall%20apple%20store%20-%20Hledat%20Googlem!15sCAQ&imagekey=!1e10!2sAF1QipN9W9DxUDUITgFgoX9n6esgRkQm5YO023aJc3PY&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwi9sNf-r4jlAhUGJ1AKHZTTAMIQoiowGnoECA4QBg>.

Today at Apple – bringing new experiences to every Apple Store. [online]. [2019-10-06]. Available at: <https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2017/04/today-at-apple-bringing-new-experiences-to-every-apple-store/>

Today at Apple – Calendar – Dubai Mall – Apple. [online]. [2019-10-06]. Available at: <https://www.apple.com/ae/today/dubaimall>.

Today at Apple expands to 50 new sessions. [online]. [2019-10-10]. Available at: <https://t3me.com/en/news/software-and-apps/today-with-apple-expands-to-50-new-sessions/>.

VYGOTSKIJ, L. S., COLE, M.: Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge : Harvard University Press, 1981.

 

 

Contact data:

PhDr. Ladislava Knihová, MBA

University of Economics

Faculty of Business Administration

  1. Churchill Sq. 4

130 67 Prague 3

CZECH REPUBLIC

ladislava.knihova@vse.cz

 

 

[1] KOZULIN, A.: Psychological Tools and Mediated Learning. In Kozulin, A., Gindis, B., Ageyev, V. S., Miller, S. M.  (eds.): Vygotsky’s educational theory in cultural context, Cambridge  : Cambridge University Press, 2003, p. 15-38.

[2] Social Learning Theory Bandura Social Learning Theory. [online]. [2019-09-06]. Available at: <https://www.learning-theories.com/social-learning-theory-bandura.html>.

[3] KOLB, D. A.: Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development. Upper Saddle River : Pearson Education, 2015.

[4] CRAIG, W.: Don’t Market To Your Customers; Educate Them Instead. [online]. [2019-10-06]. Available at: < https://www.forbes.com/sites/williamcraig/2015/04/10/dont-market-to-your-customers-educate-them-instead/>.

 

[5] CRAIG, W.: Don’t Market To Your Customers; Educate Them Instead. [online]. [2019-10-06]. Available at: < https://www.forbes.com/sites/williamcraig/2015/04/10/dont-market-to-your-customers-educate-them-instead/>.

[6] CHEN, A., LU, Y., WANG, B.: Customers’ purchase decision-making process in social commerce: A social learning perspective. In International Journal of Information Management, 2017, Vol. 37, No. 6, p. 627-638.

[7] LLOYD, P., FERNYHOUGH, C.: Lev Vygotsky: critical assessments. London,  New York : Routledge. 1999.

[8] MOLL, L. C.: Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development: Rethinking its instructional implications. In Infancia y Aprendizaje, 1990, Vol. 13, No. 51-52, p. 157–168. ISSN 0210-3702.

[9] VYGOTSKIJ, L. S., COLE, M.: Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge : Harvard University Press, 1981, p. 86.

 

[10] Social Learning Theory Bandura Social Learning Theory. [online]. [2019-09-06]. Available at: <https://www.learning-theories.com/social-learning-theory-bandura.html>.

[11] KOLB, D. A.: Experiential learning: experience as the source of learning and development. Upper Saddle River : Pearson Education, 2015, p. 4.

[12] KOLB, A. Y., Kolb, A.D.: Experiential Learning Theory: A Dynamic, Holistic Approach to Management Learning, Education and Development. In Amstrong, S. J., Fukami, C.V. (eds.): The SAGE Handbook of Management Learning, Education and Development, London : SAGE Publications Ltd, 2011, p 44. [online]. [2019-09-10]. Available at: <https://sk.sagepub.com/reference/hdbk_mgmtlearning/n3.xml>.

[13] Today at Apple – bringing new experiences to every Apple Store. [online]. [2019-10-06]. Available at: <https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2017/04/today-at-apple-bringing-new-experiences-to-every-apple-store/>

 

[14] Apple announces new Today at Apple sessions. [online]. [2019-10-06]. Available at:  https://www.apple.com/newsroom/2019/01/apple-announces-new-today-at-apple-sessions/.

[15] BATES, A. W.: Teaching in a Digital Age – The Open Textbook Project provides flexible and affordable access to higher education resources. Vancouver : Tony Bates Associates, 2015. [online]. [2019-10-07]. Available at: <http://pages.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/kellner/papers/SAGEcs.htm>.

[16] BATES, A. W.: Teaching in a Digital Age – The Open Textbook Project provides flexible and affordable access to higher education resources. Vancouver : Tony Bates Associates, 2015. [online]. [2019-10-07]. Available at: <http://pages.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/kellner/papers/SAGEcs.htm>.

[17] CUSHARD, B.: Customer Education is the New Marketing Strategy. Released on 17th October 2017. [online]. [2019-10-07]. Available at: <https://blog.servicerocket.com/learndot/customer-education-is-the-new-marketing-strategy>.

 

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